Did Jesus Descend into Hell?

Hell Lake of Fire

Many believe that after Jesus died on the cross, He descended into hell. The Apostle’s Creed certainly says this, but as for myself, I am undecided. Let’s look briefly at the evidence.

Acts 2:31

In Acts 2:31, Peter says that God did not leave the soul of Jesus in Hades, but raised Him up from the dead. The term “Hades” does not actually refer to hell as many believe, but is “the place of the dead.”

Sometimes, it refers to the underworld where the souls of men walk around like shadows. Frequently, “Hades” simply refers to the grave. It is not a mystical place, but is simply the hole in the ground where your body goes when you die. Most translators and Bible scholars believe that this is what Peter is referring to, and translate “Hades” as “the grave.”

Ephesians 4:8-10

This verse is often brought up as defense that Jesus descended into hell, but this is not the best understanding of this passage. In Ephesians 4:8, Paul talks about how Jesus ascended into heaven, and to explain this, Paul reminds His readers that Jesus was simply returning to where He came from, that is, heaven.

He only ascended from earth to heaven because He first descended from heaven to earth. The descent of Jesus was not from earth into hell, but was from heaven to earth.

1 Peter 4:6

Some believe that 1 Peter 4:6 indicates that Jesus descended into hell and preached the Gospel to those who are there.

If this is true, the question then is, “Why?” Was he giving them a second chance? Was He taunting them? Neither option makes much sense. Whatever this verse means, it must be understood in the context of other passages in the letter, such as 1 Peter 3:18-20. This text says that by the Spirit, Jesus preached to spirits who were in prison, who rebelled in the days of Noah.

While this could mean that Jesus descended into hell to preach to people in prison, why are the people who were alive in the days of Noah singled out? Some believe it was Noah who was doing the preaching by the Spirit, and he was preaching about Christ, but they did not believe, and so are now dead and in prison.

This passage is notoriously difficult, and is therefore a weak foundation upon which to build any doctrine about what Jesus did or did not do after His death and before His resurrection.

Miscellaneous Passages about Jesus’ Descent into Hell

Finally, some point to various other texts of Scripture such as the story of the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31), and the report that at the resurrection of Jesus, many who were formerly dead were raised to life (Matt 27:52-53) as evidence that Jesus did go preach to some spirits in hell, or in a “suburb of hell” called Abraham’s Bosom, and some were raised back to life.

One of the verses used against the idea that Jesus descended into hell is Luke 23:42-43 where Jesus tells the thief on the cross that today, the thief would be with Jesus in paradise. If Jesus went to hell, how could He also be with the thief in paradise. Of course, some believe that the “paradise” to which Jesus refers was a “suburb” of hell called “Abraham’s bosom,” and this is the “hell” to which Jesus descended and preached, and from which He led captives in His train (Eph 4:8).

So did Jesus descend into hell? All of the evidence is fairly inconclusive. ⇦ Tweet that!

So what do you think? Did Jesus descend into hell?

If so, why did He go there and how long was He there?

We will look at one more passage later which might possibly shed some further light on the subject.

Edit: 04/29/2011 – Here is a post I found which explains some of the background for this belief: Did Jesus Go to Hell?

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  1. Sam says

    Have you read the book written by the guy who fell asleep on his living room floor and found himself in hell, with Jesus standing there watching people being tortured? I read that Walmart did a brisk business selling the book.

    I doubt we have enough info. to really decide if Jesus descended into what we mean by the word hell.

    • says

      I have not heard about that book. Books on hell are “hot” right now! Sorry. Bad pun.

      Anyway, you are right. There are so many unknowns about “hell” that it is dangerous to say anything definitive.

  2. Ryan says

    “The Apostle’s Creed certainly says this, but as for myself, I am undecided.”

    I was curious about this remark. If the Apostle’s Creed encapsulates the Christian faith, how can one decide against it? And if one does, is that belief adopted into the Christian faith?

    Sam said (in the first comment to this thread) that we likely do not have enough info to know. I’d say that the deposit of faith we’ve been given in the Creed is enough for us to say with certainty that Christ did, in fact, descend into Hell to atone the sins of those who died before Christ’s coming.

    Prior to Jesus’ resurrection, sacrifice for sin was animal sacrifice. But it was insufficient.

    Jesus is the perfect and complete sacrifice, the only sacrifice able to fully unite us with God. It was necessary for Him to come so that we may have eternal life. It was necessary for Him to descend to give those who died prior to His coming the chance of having eternal life, too.

    • says

      Great questions. I read recently that the statement about Christ descending into hell was not part of the original “Apostle’s Creed” but was added later. I’m not sure when or why.

      But even if this is not true, the “Apostle’s Creed” was not actually written by the Apostles, nor is it found in the Bible. It is simply what some wonderful and godly people thought were key beliefs early in the life of the church. We can be helped by such a tradition, but I am not sure that it is binding.

      Anyway, I agree with you about the perfect and complete sacrifice of Jesus on the cross. I see your point about the necessity of his descent. That is interesting. So you think he went and preached to everyone who died prior to his death and resurrection? It’s possible, I suppose.

      What about people nowadays who live after the death and resurrection, but still have not heard about it? Would they also get a chance after death to hear about it?

      • Seth says

        This is a truly fascinating post and I love to see so many people pondering the scriptures in search of light and truth. For what it’s worth, my faith has been teaching some key elements that explain a lot of the confusion regarding this subject since the early 1800. I can confirm that I know that Christ descended into spirit prison where he taught those individuals who were as Peter wrote disobedient, also those individuals who never had the chance to hear the gosple nor be baptized. He did this to save them. In our church we perform baptisms vicariously for the dead so that they can take upon them the name of Christ if they choose to accept His teachings. For Christ taught that he who is not born of water and of the spirit can not enter into the kingdom of God. Which water, Peter also note s is a symbol of baptism by which only 8 were saved during the flood of Noah. We also believe that spirit prison, or hell, is in the same location as paradise. Both are simply states in which each spirit exists after death according to their works if they were good or bad. That is why Christ said to the crimals on the cross that he would see them in paradise. Paradise is not the same place as the kingdom of God. Remember that Christ also said: touch me not for I have not yet ascended to my Father. So yes they do get a chance to hear the gospel. Those who heard the gospel and yet choose to reject the message will not have a second Chance they will have to wait for the second resurrection or the resurrection of the evening. I know that these things are true because I have felt the holy ghost confirm these simple truths. But that’s a little deeper than I wanted to go, but if you want to hear more let me know.

  3. says


    As you say in your comments on Acts 2, “Hades” typically means the grave. But then, “Hades” is also what the Apostles’ Creed actually says Jesus descended into, if you go back and check the Greek (i.e., original) creed. Acts 2:31 nicely defends what’s actually in the Creed. It does not defend some interpretations of the Creed, but nothing remarkable about that.

      • says


        FWIW, in the circles I travel in these days, it’s customary to render that line of the Creed either “He descended to the dead” (slightly weasely, I feel, but you could argue it’s good DE translation) or “He descended to Hades” (which is the way we do it).
        In our youth group, the kids say the Creed every week during our worship time, in answer to the question, “Christian, in whom do you trust?” (Unchurched kids, btw, not kids reared on christianese from momma’s knee. The Creed was a baptismal formula in one form or another from at least the second century; its intended purpose was always to educate the uninitiated. We find it works very well.)

    • josh says

      Matthew 12:40(3days &nights)
      For just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

      Luke 16:19-28 (Hell)
      28.For I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment.

      Hebrews 2:14
      14Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil;

      • says


        Quoting Scripture means nothing. Anyone can quote Bible verses… even Satan!

        I am aware of these Scriptures, but do not think they refer to hell.

        And besides, you missed the most “obvious” verses, so let me add them for you:

        Ephesians 4:8-9
        Therefore He says: “When He ascended on high, He led captivity captive, And gave gifts to men.” (Now this, “He ascended “– what does it mean but that He also first descended into the lower parts of the earth?

        1 Peter 3:18-19
        For Christ also suffered once for sins, the just for the unjust, that He might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive by the Spirit, by whom also He went and preached to the spirits in prison,

  4. Grateful Al says

    All I am sure of is that Jesus said in Revelations that he holds the keys to heaven and hell. It seems to me you have to go and take the keys from the landlord.

    • Grateful Al says

      I forgot the passage that kind of confirms the landload had held those keys:
      Rev 9:1 And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit.

      • says

        Possibly. Of course, it all depends on how you read Revelation. If this is a prediction of the future, then the star which fell from heaven (is this really Satan?), was given the keys at that time, but not before.

        Your reading of Rev 9:1 would require a preterist reading, so that Revelation describes what happened in the past.

  5. Mark Burgher says


    That ‘in Him was Life’, I wonder what effect He would have had if/when He appeared in Hades? I don’t think He needed to preach at all, in the same way the demons recognized Jesus in this life only on appearance. Walking around unfettered with keys with the jailer absent would have been enough to make the fettered cry out for release.

    The verse ‘O Death where is thy sting, O Grave (Hades) where is thy victory’ backs Rev 1:18 where He declared He has the keys of Hades and Death. If He did snatch those ‘prison’ keys and declared that He still has them, He certainly didn’t give them back so the prison no longer holds or, maybe, has no prisoners in it at all… which backs the said verse ‘O Death etc… ‘.

    The Rich Man and Lazarus story backs up the futility of relying on the Law regarding Hades and Death, notably in the messages that there was a great (un-bridgable by the Law) gulf fixed which Jesus was yet to bridge and that the mention of Moses not being able to prevent both the rich man and his relatives being in the same predicament.

    Even the vilest offenders in that predicament would join the stampede out of the prison of Hades and Death, had ‘Life’ come walking by with the keys in His possession.

    Maybe that’s the true power of the Gospel. When people now die they now meet an empty ineffective prison – difficult to get our heads round as people, in anger and unforgiveness, shout ‘go to hell. Maybe it’s universalist thoughts getting the better of me again…

    • says

      Those universalist thoughts creep in on me all the time too. They are SO appealing! 😉

      Anyway, thanks for the great comment. I think there is so much about Jesus that we don’t know (but which will be revealed to us in eternity). I cannot wait!

  6. Joanie says

    I believe when Jesus died, He did go to hell, because He carried in Himself all the sins of mankind then and now. But being sinless Himself, in dying for our sins, He crushed Satan and threw Satan’s trash in his face, destroying death and sin, and replacing it with His Mercy and a path to our salvation. Then He rose from the dead with the people who died who were in limbo, awaiting for His coming to save them. And they then went with Him to Heaven saved and free by the price He willingly paid for us out of Love. Jesus is Lord and Savior, the King of Kings, Thanks be to God. Jesus, forgive.

  7. says

    I can not see how Jesus went to hell for three days as he is already there.

    Psalm 139:8 If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there.
    Omnipresent is he.

    • says


      That Psalm 139:8 quotation is from the KJV, right? The Hebrew word there for “hell” is most likely sheol (I didn’t look it up), which means “grave” or “pit.” It doesn’t necessarily mean what we think of as “hell.”

      Regardless, even if it does refer to hell, is God “there”? I suppose so?? But this wouldn’t mean that Jesus could “go” there. During his ministry, He went all sorts of places. In fact, the incarnation is all about Him “coming” to earth. Was God already here? Yes.

  8. Pete says


    That Psalm 139:8 quotation is from the KJV, right? The Hebrew word there for “hell” is most likely sheol (I didn’t look it up), which means “grave” or “pit.” It doesn’t necessarily mean what we think of as “hell.”
    Yes from KJV. The Hebrew language was reinvented late 19 century so the word before was hades, Greek. I believe language is not a factor anyway! God kniows his word and he kept it safe in all languages and he knows exactly all languages! English, Greek, Hebrew, SPanish, German etc. He knows all and he has given his word in all languages!

    “grave”, “pit”, or “abode of the dead”, is the Hebrew term for the place of the dead, the common grave of humans, or underworld of the Old Testament/Hebrew Scriptures. It is a place of darkness to which all the dead go, both the righteous and the unrighteous, regardless of the moral choices made in life, a place of stillness and darkness cut off from life and from God

    Regardless, even if it does refer to hell, is God “there”? I suppose so?? But this wouldn’t mean that Jesus could “go” there. During his ministry, He went all sorts of places. In fact, the incarnation is all about Him “coming” to earth. Was God already here? Yes.

    Yes I believe God is there I do not believe but not in the context of the wicked being there.

    Proverbs 15:3King James Version (KJV)
    3 The eyes of the Lord are in every place, beholding the evil and the good.

    Jesus knew the hearts of all me! He is everywhere and knows everything. He made this realm and everything in it belongs to him. I do not believve he suffered in hell! I can not find this in the bible.

    Jesus is God so if God is there yues Jesus is there.

    John 1
    In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.

  9. Matthew Richardson says

    Luke 16:26 seems to indicate that no one can return from hell (hades) once they have been sent there. ‘Hades’ translates as ‘unseen’. It is a place where God does not look and therefore, presumably, niether can Jesus.

  10. Jeremy Myers says

    Thanks for the studies on that. “Hades” is one of those strange words in the NT that most likely meant something completely different in NT times than it does today. So we definitely shouldn’t think of “hell” when we read about “hades” in the Bible. It just means “pit” or “grave” or “the place of the dead.”

  11. Matthew Richardson says

    I’ve tried to do a study of the various words in Hebrew and Greek that have become lumped together under the title ‘hell’. The problem is, to find the words (and consequently thier meaning) you must first know the words. Even worse, sometimes words with different specific meanings in Hebrew or Greek are translated into the same English word. I suppose I’ll just have to put the pieces together as I come across them.

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